Edgar Rice Burroughs’ Tarzan: The Complete Russ Manning Newspaper Strips Volume One: 1967-1969

Has time passed Tarzan by? Does he have any cultural cachet left in the 21st century? Note: I’m not debating the aesthetic merits of the various films, comics, or original novels by Edgar Rice Burroughs (which I admittedly have not read), but whether or not the character himself still has any hold on the public imagination the way he did 80, 50, or even 20 years ago. I suspect the answer is “not,” for the simple reason that the Lord of the Jungle just carries too much baggage with him. Africa is no longer regarded as a place of wonder, mystery, and danger where ant-men and other weird beasties might dwell, but as a continent full of famine, civil war, and other strife brought about by decades of imperialism and colonialism. Burroughs created Tarzan during an age of American expansion (in the Philippines and Cuba, for example), when the notion of the “White Man’s Burden” was still regarded as a noble calling (Kipling’s poem was published in 1899; the first Tarzan novel was published in 1912), and there’s simply no getting around the awkward racial and cultural issues that cling to him in contemporary eyes. My suspicion is that the 1999 Disney movie will turn out to be his swan song.  

But it’s not as though people weren’t aware of the problems surrounding everyone’s favorite loincloth-wearing lad in years past. Take for, example, cartoonist Russ Manning, who took over the Tarzan newspaper strip in 1967, not exactly a year devoid of cultural upheaval. Manning took over the strip with two intentions: 1) Move away from the “Me Tarzan, You Jane” reductionism of the Johnny Weissmuller movies and hew closer to Burroughs’ original novels, and 2) Make the character more appealing to a more modern and perhaps cynical readership or at least offer an apologia of sorts.

That second goal is made obvious by a storyline in Volume One of IDW/Library of American Comics' new Tarzan Vol. 1 which collects the first two years or so of Manning’s run. At one point, Tarzan and his family, who live on a rather palatial ranch in deepest Africa, are attacked by a band of would-be freedom fighters. The leader is a Che Guevara-type, beard and all, who claims to want to “liberate the savages” he accuses Tarzan of exploiting. Of course, it eventually turns out he’s a ruthless, cutthroat, treasure-hungry thug, neatly turning the voice of anti-imperialism into that of a vile oppressor.

Before we discover his true colors, however, we get to see him make a speech to the African tribe Tarzan “rules” over (Tarzan seems to have a rather laissez-faire attitude towards governing). He promises these “savages” to free them from Tarzan’s enslavement and bring them machines that will help them build great cities. Their response? Thanks, but no thanks, we prefer Tarzan. Because, for all the trappings of imperialism he’s seems to be bedecked with, he ultimately understands their way of life better than this left-wing interloper.

To his credit, Manning takes great pains to avoid offensive racial and ethic stereotypes. His Africans aren’t reduced to playing porters and pounding jungle drums but are portrayed as noble, intelligent, and if not equal to Tarzan, at least fierce, proud warriors in their own right. Manning obviously spent a good deal of time researching the dress, customs, and environment of sub-Saharan cultures and it shows frequently in the strip.

Indeed, if there’s anyone in Manning’s strip that comes off really badly, it’s Jane, Tarzan’s wife. I don’t know how she’s portrayed in Burroughs’ novels, but she’s little more than a cipher here, a pretty face that constantly needs rescuing from various monsters and evildoers and seems completely incapable of rescuing herself or really doing anything beyond looking pretty and worrying a lot. She’s the ultimate damsel in distress.

In fact, I found myself wondering how Jane feels about being constantly left on the sidelines while her husband and teenage son, Korak, go off on wondrous and extremely dangerous adventures. At one point, she becomes slightly horrified watching her family cavort with apes in a practice known as “dum-dum” (draw your own racial allusions) and wonders if she can ever truly understand them. No wonder that the Sunday sequences end with Jane leaving a “Dear John” letter for Tarzan saying she’s had it with the jungle and is going back home to England. Who can blame her?

It’s a shame considering the number of more interesting or at least better realized female supporting characters that pop up in the strip from time to time. True, most of them are villains or at least have ignoble motives (the bulk of them just want to get into Tarzan’s pants, such as they are) but at least their sexual aggressiveness is a welcome change from the mousy blandness of Jane.

There’s a disturbing sexual current that runs through Manning’s strips, especially in one storyline where Jane is kidnapped by a group of creepy, bird-like “winged men.” It is extremely clear that they intend to rape Jane and impregnate her. Manning makes this as explicit as possible without actually using the r-word or having any torn clothing.  “If they are like roosters, the winner will claim the hen. I’ve got to get away,” Jane tells herself. If that didn’t telegraph the subtext loud and clear, there’s the cavern of kidnapped women Jane comes across that have already given birth to a generation of winged men. I credit Manning for being willing to push the envelope a bit in a family newspaper, but there’s no denying that for any 21st century reader with even the slightest understanding of the horrors of sexual violence, this storyline leaves a creepy after taste.

There are other bits too that suggest a weird, sexist undercurrent: A savage tribe of giant, well-tanned, women that like to munch on a tiny, mouse-sized race of people; a young female adventurer who’s constantly showing up her whiny, emasculated suitor but still needs lots of saving from Tarzan (she later dons a racy costume of ostrich feathers when her clothes get ripped off [don’t ask] making her look like a burlesque performer. I don’t know if Manning is simply aping Burroughs or indulging in his own fetishes, but it’s all a bit odd to put it mildly.

Despite all of this, there’s no denying Manning’s capability, not just as an artist but also as a storyteller. His crisp, dynamic art excels in the best Alex Raymond/Burne Hogarth tradition and his panels are full of a lean, muscular Tarzan leaping and gallivanting through the jungle and toward the reader. He’s excellent at pacing the strip, especially given the minimal amount of space he was given (usually only three panels a day), some of which had to be occasionally be given to exposition or recapping the past adventure. Drawn as it was in an age that was moving away from photorealistic soap opera and adventure strips, it’s hard not to view Manning’s Tarzan as something of a middle finger to newspaper editors, a sign that not everything on the funnies page needed to be drawn on the level of Miss Peach, dwindling space be damned.

There is something charming about the fantastical elements that Manning and Burroughs draw upon in Tarzan. It’s hard not to smile or be at least a little thrilled when the so-called Lord of the Jungle crosses a raging river riding a triceratops, fends off his village from a rampaging tyrannosaurus, or just leaps across a wide ravine. At the same time, Manning’s hard work is brought down by the character’s essence and the racial and cultural overtones that surround him. As good as Manning’s work is, Tarzan feels more like a cultural artifact than a thriving, vibrant character. Certainly those who have an affinity for the sort of pulp adventures Manning and Burroughs indulged in will able to enjoy this even while acknowledging some of the more unpleasant aspects of the work. And those readers looking to simply marvel at Manning’s artistic talents will find plenty of pretty pictures to gaze upon. For some, that’s enough. Others might well read it and wince.


11 Responses to Edgar Rice Burroughs’ Tarzan: The Complete Russ Manning Newspaper Strips Volume One: 1967-1969

  1. Derik Badman says:

    I wonder how much of Manning’s Tarzan comes out of the Dubois/Marsh comic books. Manning followed up Marsh on that series (and worked the backup feature during Marsh’s run). Based on your description I’d guess the treatment of the Africans is similar (Dubois/Marsh make them distinct on many levels), though I think they were less problematic with the women.

  2. Bill Hillman says:

    “. . . original novels by Edgar Rice Burroughs (which I admittedly have not read)” ???
    I suggest you read the books written by Edgar Rice Burroughs. Many inaccuracies in your article. Heavy criticism and misunderstanding of ERB and his characters make it clear that you have very little understanding of the author and his influence on countless authors, SF themes, scientists, astronauts, conservationists, etc.
    Bill Hillman
    Editor and Webmaster for the
    Edgar Rice Burroughs Tribute Websites and Weekly Webzines
    (over 10,000 Webpages in archive)

  3. Ö H says:

    It’s hyper-sensitive politically correct denouncements of innocuous titles like Manning’s Tarzan from uninformed hipster critics in articles such as this that perpetuate lower expectations from the buying public and are killing the comics industry.
    I can’t wait for volume 2.

  4. Jim Greer says:

    I think Tarzan in his many incarnations still has a lot to thrill the modern reader. Manning’s art still looks beautiful. As for Jane not being well realised,it is difficult to do this within the confines of a newspaper strip. Even Tarzan does not show any of the layers of complexity he has in the ERB books- this just isn’t possible when people only get a few panels a day. These strips should just be enjoyed as a visual feast. For the time he was writing his novels, Burroughs shows a lot of progressive ideas and I am sure that if he was alive now he would write in a style which was more suited to our era and how we perceive different cultures.
    Tarzan is an extremely iconic character and like Superman, Batman and James Bond, he just needs someone with imagination who is in tune with the essence of the character to update him effectively.
    Burroughs books are filled with optimism, a faith in the human spirit, perception of human nature and a joyful appreciation of the world and the many promises it holds. Even though our views about Africa has changed, there is still room for heroism, mystery and adventure.
    Overall, I felt that the review was actually reasonably balanced but Tarzan is a force of nature and should not be written off yet,

  5. Jason Borgeson says:

    Somebody ought to approach the Burroughs and Manning estates about novelizing Russ Manning’s stories. A series of books a la John Eric Holmes “Mahars Of Pellucidar”. My favorite stories are “Jungle Revolution”, “Sacred Lake/Squid God”, “Valley Of Insects,/Return To Opar”… It’d be very cool to read them as novels.

  6. Vikram Chantal says:

    Absolutely agree with O H…Me too! Can’t wait to get hold of the three remaining volumes!

    And I just got hold of two Korak and the gorgeous Sunday strip Tarzan collection immortalised by Russ Manning…

    My daughter sent the books from the US and my wife ferried them across the skies to India, just an hour ago!

    And I’m happy to announce/brag that I have the Manning originals too, which I bought as a kid growing up in Bombay (Not just Tarzan but Magnus too in mint condition)

    Needless to add I became an instant fan of this absolutely fabulous comic character all thanks to the genius of the folks who put their creations out with minimal fanfare.

    And they set standards so high so effortlessly that only when they stopped we realised how irreplaceable they were! That is why I am buying these classics all over again, not just as a Tarzan or Manning groupie but as a writer and illustrator who has worked for some of the world’s biggest newspapers and magazines for the last 30 years!

  7. didier guego says:

    I collect all things aboot tarzan and R M
    I organised a meetting teen years ago aboot Tarzan
    in the city to Becherel in FRANCE.
    also,i study the story a the comix
    So.RM is the best drawer of Tarzan !
    next time,didier Guego

  8. Paul Harris says:

    “Russ Manning is the best drawer of Tarzan” . . . ?
    Maybe, except that Burne Hogarth and Joe Kubert also drew Tarzan, and spectacularly so.
    RM is clean, efficient and competent; Hogarth and Kubert are superior in every way.

  9. Patrice Chevraulaix says:

    As Derek The Badman says above, Marsh was the man. His Tarzan stuff was so uniquely gentle and patient and observant, unlike any others’ work. No idea if it’s faithful to the novels, but I don’t care.

    Hogarth’s drawing was beautiful but also anatomically and gesturally histrionic.

    Manning is lovely as well, but his sci-fi stuff was better. Steve Rude really draws upon Manning’s style, much much more than the more often mentioned Kirby or Toth. I see almost zero Kirby in Rude’s work. Maybe 85% Manning, 10% Toth, 5% Kirby, with the backgrounds and secondary characters being maybe 35% Seuss. Would be interesting to see a well written Tarzan tale drawn by Rude.

  10. Leonardo says:

    I absolutely agree, too, with OH. Particularly irritating the specious words about Jane and the winged men: instead of be pleased with the capacity of Manning in telling about real life-like themes…

  11. Kevin Collins says:

    While each of the major Tarzan artists (Foster, Hogarth, Marsh, Manning, and Kubert) had his own virtues, I prefer Manning to the others. If you judge these artists for their work in a story–telling medium, and not just for the beauty and technical qualities of the art, I think Manning is clearly superior. The Manning stories really flow, in a way that the clunky “picture stories” of Foster and Hogarth do not. Kubert did the best adaptations of the first two ERB Tarzan novels, but never produced any original stories of merit (story-wise). Kubert excelled in both rendering and story-telling, but couldn’t come up with a decent original idea for a story. Marsh had an interesting Canniff-esque style, but really is not in the same league as an illustrator with the other four. Marsh was quite good at telling stories in the comics medium, but was often crude in rendering. Foster and Hogarth produced some of the most beautiful artwork ever, but most of their stories are dull.
    The politically correct review in The Comics Journal is predictably lame. ERB’s Tarzan was a fantasy character written in a particular time. If you insist on injecting today’s prejudices into this old material, of course you won’t enjoy it much. You won’t be able to enjoy Shakespeare, either.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *